157 APPENDIX B EXAMPLE OF THE MATERIALS USED TO PREPARE STUDENTS FOR EXAMS IN SPEAKING AND WRITING During the nal two years the same amount of instruction time (30 hours in both conditions) was used to introduce di erent academic topics like migrants, tattoos, and abortion. During 6-7 lessons, a topic was introduced using a video-documentary of two minutes on average. is introduction was followed by listening and reading exercises, which entailed repeated exposure to the language used in the video-documentary prompting the learner to focus on the vocabulary needed to speak and write about the topic later on. Gradually, exercises became more productive: learners were encouraged to think of arguments for and against a given view related to the topic under discussion and to use these arguments in speaking and writing as part of several guided tasks, making sure all students were able to understand and produce content on these topics. Finally, free response tasks like a debate, a press conference and a discussion were organized to enable students to produce language spontaneously during the nal oral pro ciency test. is appendix contains the combined teacher’s guide and student’s activities of one of the subjects used in the studies on speaking and writing skills (chapters 5-7).