Alexander Beulens

188 Chapter 7 Measurements Nontechnical skills will be observed using five different methods: (1) NOTSS: Nontechnical Skills for Surgeons; (2) Oxford NOTECHS II: a modified theatre team nontechnical skills scoring system; (3) OTAS: Observational Team- work Assessment for Surgery; (4) Interpersonal and Cognitive Assessment for Robotic Surgery (ICARS): evaluation of nontechnical skills in robotic surgery; and (5) analysis of human factors. Technical skills in robot-assisted radical cystec- tomy will be analysed using two different methods: (1) GEARS: Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skill and (2) GERT: Generic Error Rating Tool. Safety criteria and reporting Formal ethical approval has been provided by Medi- cal research Ethics Committees United (MEC-U), The Netherlands (reference num- ber W19.048). We hope to present the results of this study to the scientific community at conferences and in peer-reviewed journals. Statistical Analysis Frequency statistics will be calculated for patient demograph- ical data, and a Shapiro-Wilk test with p > 0.05 will be used to define normal distribution. Univariate analysis will be conducted to test for statistically significant differences in observation scores between open radical cystectomy and robot- assisted radical cystectomy cohorts across all variables, using independent sample t tests and Mann-Whitney U testing, as appropriate. A variable-selection strategy will be used to create multivariate models. Binary logistic regression will be conducted to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for significant predictors on univariate analysis and clinically relevant covariates. Statistical significance is set at p < 0.05 based on a two-tailed comparison. Summary This study uses a structured approach to the analysis of nontechnical skills using extracorporeal videos of both open radical cystectomy and robot- assisted radical cystectomy surgeries, in order to obtain detailed data on nontech- nical skills during open and minimally invasive surgeries. The results of this study could possibly be used to develop team-training programmes, specifically for the introduction of the surgical robot in relation to changes in nontechnical skills. Additional analysis of technical skills using the intracorporeal footage of the surgical robot will be used to elucidate the role of surgical skills and surgical events in nontechnical skills.