Alexander Beulens

187 A prospective observational multicentre study concerning non-technical skills in robot assisted radical cystectomy versus open radical cystectomy. Abstract: Introduction and Hypotheses valuation of surgical skills, both technical and non- technical, is possible through observations and video analysis. Besides technical failures, adverse outcomes in surgery can also be related to hampered communi- cation, moderate teamwork, lack of leadership, and loss of situational awareness. Even though some surgeons are convinced about nontechnical skills being an important part of their professionalisation, there is paucity of data about a possible relationship between nontechnical skills and surgical outcome. In robot-assisted surgery, the surgeon sits behind the console and is at a remote position from the surgical field and team, making communication more important than in open surgery and conventional laparoscopy. A lack of structured research makes it difficult to assess the value of the different analysis methods for nontechnical skills, particularly in robot-assisted surgery. Our hypothesis includes the following: (1) introduction of robot-assisted surgery leads to an initial decay in nontechnical skills behaviour during the learning curve of the team, (2) nontechnical skills behaviour is more explicitly expressed in experienced robot-assisted surgery teams than in experienced open surgery teams, and (3) introduction of robot-assisted surgery leads to the development of different forms of nontechnical skills behav- iour compared with open surgery. Design This study is a prospective, observational, multicentre, nonrandomised, case-control study including bladder cancer patients undergoing either an open radical cystectomy or a robot-assisted radical cystectomy at the Catharina Hospital Eindhoven, the Netherlands, or at the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital Amsterdam. All patients are eligible for inclusion; there are no exclusion criteria. The Catharina Hospital Eindhoven, the Netherlands, performs on average 35 radical cystectomies a year. The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital Amsterdam, performs on average 100 radical cystec- tomies a year. Protocol Overview The choice of treatment is at the discretion of the patient and the surgeon. Patient results will be obtained prospectively. Pathology results as well as complications occurring within 90 d following surgery will be registered. Surgical complications will be registered according to the Clavien-Dindo system.