132 Chapter 4 Conclusion The results of our study show residents in urology are allowed to perform robot assisted surgery during their residency whilst criteria for starting RAS differ significantly amongst the teaching hospitals. In order to guarantee a basic level of skills and knowledge a structured (multi-step) training and certification program for RAS should be implemented. To ensure patient safety, reduce the risks for patients, and prepare the resident for his or her first attempt at surgery on a real patient. The option of an advanced structured course equipped with all training models showed to be attractive for enthusiastic novice RAS surgeons. The participation to a well-structured advanced training course in robotic surgery implies an improvement of surgical skills and permits most of the senior residents and young specialists in Urology to perform/ practice/continue their career in RAS at their hospitals after the course.