Wim Gombert

72 CHAPTER 5 inspired teaching program on all four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. e aim of this particular study is to compare the students’ writing skills in the two programs a er six years of instruction, building on Rousse Malpat’s work (RousseMalpat, 2019). LITERATURE STRUCTURE-BASED VERSUS DYNAMIC USAGE BASED INSTRUCTION In line with generativist linguistic theory, an SB approach sees the foreign language as a system of structurally related elements that encode meaning. Language learning within an SB approach is inherently rule-driven (Lightbown& Spada, 2013) and the development of FL pro ciency bene ts from learning to apply grammatical, morphological and phonological rules and focusing on accuracy. e structural elements of di erent subsystems are usually presented from simple to complex, making language structure an essential backbone of SB course books. In line with usage-based theory, a DUB approach (cf. Verspoor, 2017) views language as a complex dynamic system that itself consists of di erent interacting sub-systems like the lexicon, syntax and morphology. e language system is complex and dynamic in the sense that it is connected to other systems in its environment, like for instance the general cognitive system and the a ective system, and that its subsystems (e.g., lexicon, syntax, phonology) are not modular but interact. Furthermore, language as a complex system is dynamic in the sense that it evolves with a changing environment and changing input patterns. Second language development is the result of a dynamic interplay between internal resources like general aptitude, degree of motivation, eagerness to learn, and attention as well as external resources, including the degree of exposure or the e ectiveness of an instructional approach (de Bot & Larsen-Freeman, 2011). Language thus emerges through use and in interaction with di erent sub-systems that themselves foster change over time. Key elements in language learning from a DUB perspective are repetitive exposure to meaningful input and authentic language use (Langacker, 2000; Tomasello, 2003; Ellis, 2008a). When su ciently exposed to the target language for regularities to become noticed, the learner comes to use distributional information to bootstrap knowledge, resulting in language acquisition (Onnis, 2012). Linguistic units are learned as they are “heard and used frequently and therefore entrenched, which is the result of habit formation, routinization and automatization” (Verspoor and Schmitt, 2013, p. 354). A fundamental di erence between SB and DUB perspectives is the type of instruction it assumes to be needed for language learning. Operationalizing an SB perspective into a teaching program typically results in an explicit approach with a focus on