Wim Gombert

46 CHAPTER 3 TABLE 4. Overview of participants Cohort Exam year Number of SB participants Number of DUB participants 2009 2015 26 0 2010 2016 29 0 2011 2017 0 35 2012 2018 0 23 2013 2019 0 20 THE TEACHING APPROACHES OUTLINED When reading and writing about Instructed SLA as it is organized and practised in schools, it is important to have a common understanding of di erent terms, starting with the notions and constructs of method, approach, design and procedure in teaching SLA. Richards and Rodgers (2014) use the notion of method as the overall term and distinguish three levels of conceptualization and organization: 1. e approach is a set of assumptions (a theory) about language and language learning. 2. e design is an overall plan describing the objectives and the syllabus of the method, as well as the roles played by the learner, the teacher and the instructional materials. 3. e procedure describes the classroom techniques, practices and behaviors. In our study, the books and toolkits o ered will be considered the methods and the approaches are SB or DUB, respectively. e design considers the objective (communication in both methods), the syllabus (selection and organization of language content), the types of tasks and activities and the role of learners, teachers and instructional materials. e procedures include the language spoken in class, the exercises that form part of the approaches and other classroom-related activities, such as testing. THE STRUCTURE-BASED METHOD Two FFL coursebooks were used in the SB cohorts: “Grandes Lignes” (Bakker et al., 2005) and “Libre Service” (Breek et al., 2003). ese coursebooks are called “methods” because they contain ready-to-use instructional materials that help the teacher execute the procedures which have been designed in accordance with the theoretical principles of a structure-based approach. “Grandes Lignes” was used during the rst three years and “Libre Service” in the nal three years of the SB-taught students.