Wim Gombert

30 CHAPTER 2 Much of the SLA usage-based research (cf. Ellis, 2013) has focused on constructions at the clausal level, usually referred to as Verb Argument Constructions (Cro , 2012), and has shown that learners tend to start using such constructions with the most frequent verbs (e.g., give) and slowly but surely add less frequent ones, re ective of the fact that acquisition is input-driven. A DYNAMIC USAGE-BASED (DUB) PERSPECTIVE Because the usage-based term “constructions” may remind us more of form than meaning and does not make explicit that form-use-meaning mapping always occurs in a pragmatic context (Schmitt & Schmitt, 2000), Verspoor (2017) suggested another term to be used for conventionalized expressions: FormUse Meaning Mapping (FUMMs). For example, “Il était une fois” is a chunk to mean “once upon a time” and is a typical phrase to start a fairy tale in French. With that, it constitutes a prime example of a FUMM instance. e term FUMM also includes other multi-word (idiomatic) expressions and grammatical sequences at the phrase level (such as an article with a noun). Verspoor (2017) proposes the term dynamic usage-based (DUB) approach to emphasize the dynamic interaction of di erent sub-systems within language itself and the dynamic interaction between language learners and their environment, resulting in a non-linear language development paths, with (o en unpredictable) phases of heightened levels of variability signaling change in language and variation among learners. When considering language learning from a DUB perspective (Cf. Verspoor, 2017), frequent exposure to meaningful and authentic sequences in an appropriate (preferably multi-modal) context is critical for language development to occur. is input ideally consists of constructions with a certain form, a certain meaning and a certain use, which need to be strongly connected to enable entrenchment. e connection between these aspects is strengthened as exposure is repeated and is actively used by the learner. Each time a learner is exposed to a FUMM or uses it, the activation level of that particular FUMM increases, resulting in entrenchment. From a DUB perspective, this entrenchment process is essentially dynamic and variable across individuals. It has been suggested that an L2 teaching approach designed from a DUB perspective should focus on the entrenchment of FUMMs by providing high exposure levels to and promote active use of the L2 (Rousse-Malpat & Verspoor, 2018). e input should be appropriate for the learner (given their current pro ciency level) and comprehension of the input should be sca olded (e.g., by gestures, visuals, paraphrases, etc.) (also following Krashen, 1985). Target language use in the classroom is important as it generates considerable exposure, especially in contexts where out-of-class exposure to the target language is minimal. At lower pro ciency levels, a great deal of imitation and repetition of input is essential, but as the learner develops, other activities facilitating