Bastiaan Sallevelt

50 CHAPTER 2.1 tool with ADR risk-prediction models may be a good future strategy to identify older patients at highest risk of ADRs, potentially increasing the predictive value of the tool. However, currently available ADR risk-prediction models for use in older people, such as the GerontoNet ADR risk scale and the Adverse Drug Reaction Risk in Older Persons (ADRROP) prediction scale, failed to predict ADRs well, and the most important risk factor for the occurrence of ADRs – polypharmacy – was already included in our study [10,36–38]. ADR recognition by geriatric residents/geriatricians was very high for ADRs detected with the trigger tool in the setting of a tertiary university teaching hospital. Therefore, implementation of this trigger tool is not likely to improve care for older patients acutely admitted to our geriatric ward. However, ADR recognition by physicians less experienced in ADR detection in older people may be lower. Future research could focus on the clinical value of the tool if used in older patients acutely admitted to non-geriatric wards. In addition, it would be interesting to investigate if the ADR trigger tool could decrease the time to ADR detection, for example, when integrated with electronic healthcare systems. The use of clinical decision support systems to improve in-hospital fall and delirium care (e.g. reminders for patient screening and support to review medication) was identified as a facilitator in a recent interview study among Dutch healthcare professionals [39]. However, the risk of alert fatigue was also addressed as a potential barrier for this strategy [39]. In view of our results, we highly recommend conducting performance and feasibility studies before recommending ADR trigger tools as a standard of care. Conclusion The ADR trigger tool has predictive value (PPV 41.8%), but implementation of this tool is not likely to improve ADR recognition in older patients acutely admitted to our geriatric ward because the majority of ADRs were recognised by usual care.