93 Role of semantics in a phonics through spelling intervention 4 a phonics through spelling intervention. This question was answered by conducting three hierarchical regression analyses (i.e., one analysis for each change score in error type). For each analysis, the predictor variables (i.e., phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and verbal working memory) were entered in step 1, followed by semantic abilities in step 2 to see what the unique contribution of semantic abilities is beyond phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and verbal working memory. In step 1, no variables significantly predicted any change score, although the model was significant for phonological and orthographic errors. In step 2, semantic abilities was a positive predictor for all three change scores: the better the semantic abilities, the higher the change scores in phonological, morphological and orthographic errors (see Table 4.5). We again checked whether age had any impact on the results and reran the analysis including age in step 1; results remained similar. Table 4.5 Cognitive Predictors of the Change in Spelling Errors during the Interventions (n = 46). Change in phonological errors Change in morphological errors Change in orthographic errors ∆R2 b ∆R2 b ∆R2 b Step 1 .204* .086 .213* Phonological awareness 0.142 0.017 0.146 Rapid automatized naming -0.109 -0.091 -0.131 Verbal working memory 0.338 0.254 0.305 Step 2 .152** .149** .154** Phonological awareness 0.059 -0.058 0.062 Rapid automatized naming -0.055 -0.042 -0.076 Verbal working memory 0.266 0.189 0.232 Semantic abilities 0.124** 0.113** 0.126** Total R2 adj .292** .235** .367** *p< .05. **p< .01 ***p< .001 Conclusions and discussion Thepresent study investigatedthephonological andorthographic spellingdevelopment of children with dyslexia by analyzing phonological, morphological, and orthographic spelling errors both before and after a phonics through spelling intervention. The predictive role of semantic abilities for children with dyslexia was studied as an addition to the phonological core deficit.