Robin van Rijthoven

82 Chapter 4 and colleagues (2005), children with dyslexia need direct assistance to develop their spelling skills by improving both the phonological and orthographic representations. Skilled spelling requires a solid base of grapheme-phoneme translation, which enables the formation of strong bi-directional relations between phonological and orthographic representations. Next, a combination of instruction and experience in both reading and spelling can help to learn the increasingly complex and specific orthographic spelling by learning morphological and orthographic patterns (Caravolas et al., 2001). This further enhances the quality of the relation between phonological and orthographic representations and includes semantic features as well (Perfetti & Hart, 2002). A specific form of intervention that combines the above described principles is the phonics through spelling intervention. Phonics interventions are in general effective in enhancing spelling (and reading) development in typically developing children, as well as for children with dyslexia (Galuschka et al., 2014). A phonics through spelling intervention includes more time for instruction and practice in spelling compared to other phonics interventions. By doing so, the intervention enhances both reading and spelling levels, probably because of the high-quality network of phonological, orthographic, and semantic representations that are formed during the intervention (Van Rijthoven et al., 2020). However, results of phonics interventions on spelling have only been expressed in the number of words written correctly, whereas comparing spelling error profiles before and after the intervention could give new insights in the phonological and orthographic spelling development due to the intervention. Despite the fact that children with dyslexia have shared problems, large individual differences were found in the progress during intervention (e.g., Galuschka et al., 2014). Individual differences during intervention were mainly caused by a phonological deficit (see Snowling, 1998; Tilanus et al., 2019). However, no distinction was made between phonological and orthographic spelling and semantic abilities was not included as a predictor. The present study Previous researchshowed that childrenwithdyslexiamakemore spellingerrors compared to typically developing children. In order to enhance the possibilities of children with dyslexia early in life, it is important to gainmore insight in the relative differences between spelling error patterns these children show both before and after an intervention and to what extent the number and distribution of errors is related to children’s semantic abilities. In the present study, the following research questions were asked: 1. (a) To what extent do children with dyslexia differ from typically developing children in phonological and orthographic spelling?