121 Compensatory role of verbal learning and consolidation in reading and spelling 5 Differences in verbal learning and consolidation Beforeanswering the researchquestion, wechecked for groupdifferencesbyconducting two general linear model repeated measure analyses. Firstly, we studied the difference between children with dyslexia and typically developing children in their verbal learning over the five trials. Verbal learning was the within subject factor (the five consecutive trials) and Group (children with dyslexia versus typically developing children) was the between subjects’ factor. Mauchly’s test indicated that the assumption of sphericity has been violated for the main effects of verbal learning, χ2 (9) = 25.167, p = .003. Therefore, degrees of freedom were corrected using Huyn-Feldt estimates of sphericity (e = .85 for verbal learning). Results showed that there was a main effect of Verbal learning, F(3.65, 320.77) = 154.136, p< .001, η2 p = .637, Group F(1, 88) = 14.468, p< .001, η2 p = .141, as well as an interaction between Verbal learning and Group, F(3.645, 320.77) = 5.592, p< .001, η2 p = .060. While based on the Holm-Bonferroni corrected t-test (see Table 5.1) the groups did not differ at T1 (p = .802), the Holm-Bonferroni corrected t-test showed significant differences at all subsequent trials (p = .002), due to a higher growth for the group with dyslexia between T1 and T2 (p< .001). Secondly, we studied the difference between children with dyslexia and typically developing children in verbal consolidation (the number of words remembered at T6). The number of Words remembered was the within subject factor (fifth trial and verbal consolidation/T6) and Group (childrenwith dyslexia versus typically developing children) was the between subjects’ factor. There was a main effect of Words remembered, F(1, 88) = 33.386, p< .001, η2 p = .275, a main effect of Group F(1, 88) = 6.930, p = .010, η2 p = .073, as well as an interaction Words remembered x Group, F(1, 88) = 8.473, p = .005, η2 p = .088. All children forgot words over time but children with dyslexia forgot more words compared to typically developing children. Based on the Holm-Bonferroni corrected t-test (see Table 5.1), children with dyslexia seem to remember significantly more words at trial 5 compared to the typically developing children (p < .001) and at the moment of verbal consolidation (i.e., T6) there seems to be no difference in the number of remembered words over time (p = .271). Results are depicted in Figure 5.1.