113 Compensatory role of verbal learning and consolidation in reading and spelling 5 presented word and speak out the remaining word (e.g., ‘dak’ [roof] minus ‘k’ [f] is ‘da’ [roo]). Testing was terminated after four consecutive mistakes. Second, during the subtest ‘Spoonerism’ children had to switch the first sounds of two words (e.g., ‘John Lennon’ becomes ‘Lohn Jennon’). In both tests, all correctly formed words were counted. The test-retest reliability differs per age but is at least .60 (Kort et al., 2005a). Rapid automatized naming RAN was measured using two subtests of ‘Continuous Naming and Reading Words’ (Van den Bos & Lutje Spelberg, 2007). During ‘Naming Letters’ children had to read out loud 50 letters. During ‘Naming Digits’ they were asked to read out loud 50 digits. Children were asked to name these visual stimuli as quickly as possible. The time in seconds needed to finish each subtest was used for analysis, and thus, a higher score expressed a weaker performance on RAN. The (split half) reliability of this measure differs per age but is at least .75 (Van den Bos & Lutje Spelberg, 2007). Verbal working memory Verbal working memory was measured using the backward task of the Number Recall subtest from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-IIINL) (Kort et al., 2005b). In this task, the experimenter pronounces sequences of digits that the child was asked to repeat in backward order. Testing was terminated after two consecutive mistakes. The number of correctly recalled sequences was counted. The (split half) reliability of this measure differs per age but is at least .50 (Kort et al., 2005b). Semantic abilities Semantic abilities were measured by adding the z-scores of four subtests from the WISC-IIINL (Kort et al., 2005b). Based on the manual, the child received zero, one, or two points for each item. Testing was terminated after four or five (Information) consecutive mistakes. The (split half) reliability differs per age but is between .64 and .77 (Kort et al., 2005b). First, during ‘Information’, the child has to answer verbally asked questions to test their general knowledge about events, objects, places, and people. Secondly, during ‘Similarities’, the child has to name the similarity between two concepts. Thirdly, during ‘Productive vocabulary’, the experimenter pronounces a word and the task of the child was to define the given word. Fourthly, during ‘Comprehension’, the experimenter asked questions about social situations or common concepts. Kaufman (1975) already showed that these four measures together form a factor named ‘verbal comprehension’, which is also the case in the current sample (Van Rijthoven et al., 2018).