Alexander Beulens

75 Training novice robot surgeons: Proctoring provides same results as simulator-generated guidance Threshold scores achievement during vesicourethral anastomosis simulation exercise. Pre-intervention The results in Table 3 shows no significant differences in the number of participants among the dif-ferent study groups who achieved the threshold scores for the vesicourethral anastomosis simula-tion exercise. None of the participants achieved all criteria set by Harrison et al. The highest num-ber of achieved threshold scores were in the number of movements of the right instrument (68,6%), number of unnecessary needle piercing points (54,3%), total time the out of view instru-ments (52,8%) , and path length of the right instrument (50%). None of the participants reached the wound separation and total time threshold scores. Table 2. continued Suture handling Excessive force - Suture breakage (n) 0.0 (1) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.922@ 2@ 63@ .403@ .823^ .742^ .371^ Tissue handling Number of times the tissue was grasped (n) 3.0 (18) 6.5 (16) -2.0 (14) 3.000@ 2@ 63@ .057@ .795^ .055^ .204^ Variable No guidance group (n=23) Proctor guided group (n=23) Simulator generated guidance group (n=24) F-value DF 1 DF 2 p-value overall P-value Non-No guidance group vs... Proctor guided group P-value Non-No guidance group vs... Simulator generated guidance group P-value Proctor guided group vs... Simulator generated guidance group @One-way Anova, ^Turkey HSD *Brown – Forsythe test, $ Games-Howell Post-Hoc Test, DF1 = degrees of freedom between groups, DF 2 = degrees of freedom within groups, n = number, mm= millimeters