Alexander Beulens

67 Training novice robot surgeons: Proctoring provides same results as simulator-generated guidance The third group was the no-guidance group, this group was asked to train the vesicourethral anastomosis exercise (figure 3F) for 30 minutes without guidance. The participants did not receive any guidance, both from the proctor and the simulator After the intervention, all groups were asked to perform the vesicourethral anastomosis exercise again for 30 minutes without any additional proctoring or guidance by the simulator (post-intervention phase). Finally, the participants were asked to complete the questionnaire on the participant’s satisfaction and then the training was completed. Threshold scores for the vesicourethral anastomosis simulation exercise. In a recent publication by Harrison et al. threshold scores are published in order to pass the vesicourethral anastomosis simulation exercise.13 These scores are represented in tables 3 and 4. These threshold scores are based on the mean scores of the experts included in the study by Harrison et al.13 The results of our study will be compared to these threshold scores in order to investigate if any of our participants are able to pass the vesicourethral anastomosis simulation exercise according to these standards. Additional analysis will be performed to investigate if baseline characteristics of the participants influence the likeliness of the participant reaching the threshold scores. Sample size analysis The sample size analysis was based on a publication of Shim et-al.3 Their results showed that it is possible to detect a difference in populations means of 66 seconds on the mean time for completing the task. The time of the procedure is one of the threshold scores as set by Harrison et al.13 Using the program PS: Power and Sample Size Calculation version 3.1.6, a sample size calculation was performed. Using 0.05 as Alpha, a Power of 0.80, and an effect size of 66, a sample size of 23 patients per subgroup would be sufficient for this study. Data analysis Data analysis was performed using SPSS statistics v24 (IBM, NY). Frequency statistics were used to present categorical variables. Statistical significance in differences in categorical variables were calculated using the Pearson Chi-square test, in case of small numbers the Fisher exact test was used. Statistical significance in differences in case of continuous variables were calculated using a one-way ANOVA test, in case of in-homogeneity of variance the Brown – Forsythe test was used. Significance in difference between the three groups were calculated using the Turkey HSD test, in case of in-homogeneity of variance the Games-Howell Post-Hoc Test was used. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test (in case of non-normal distributed data) or a two-sided