61 Training novice robot surgeons: Proctoring provides same results as simulator-generated guidance Methods Participants In this study, Dutch medical students, PhD-students, and surgical residents were trained at Catharina Hospital in Eindhoven between January and February 2020. Participants were recruited at several medical faculties and hospitals in the Netherlands. Those with previous experience in RAS and robot assisted simulation were excluded from the study. Considering this we assumed that there were no differences in baseline robot-assisted surgical skills among the participants.19 To each participant a study number was assigned in order to anonymise their data. Materials Robot-assisted surgery simulation system The Robotix Mentor simulation system designed by 3Dsystems was used for the simulation-based training (Figure 1). This surgical simulator allows to train basic robotic skill exercises needed to approach the real surgical consol. Moreover, it allows to train advanced robotic skill exercises including step by step (modular) procedural training. During our training five basic skill exercises were selected because they best reflect the skills needed to perform the vesicourethral anastomosis (Figure 3f). Figure 1. 3Dsystems Robotix Mentor simulation system.