124 Chapter 4 were fellows at the time of the course. Most of the residents selected for the course (81.5%) were attending last year (sixth year). Most (89.7%) of the participants had experience in laparoscopic surgery on real patients (Table 2). More than half of the participants reported to have performed more than 30 hours of laparoscopic surgery on patients prior to the training. More than half of the participants had experience with RAS on patients, only one participant did not have any experience with RAS of Robot-assisted simulation. Of the participants, 58% had more than 10 hours or RAS experience on real patients prior to their participation in the course. Figure 1 Box and whisker plot representing the overall score for all participants on the virtual reality da Vinci skills simulator before (light grey) and after (dark grey) the training.