Hanna de Jong-Markus

Chapter 1 14 a standard biography, people form a biography of choice in which different roles can be integrated (Beck & Beck-Gernsheim, 2002; cf. Boeve, 2005). Duyvendak (2004; cf. Rasborg, 2017) shows that individualisation does not automatically lead to more diversity because—especially in the Netherlands—there is also uniformisation of choices. The ties that people enter into are, however, less strong and less encompassing than in earlier times. As a result, individuals can be connected to more networks simultaneously. To a large extent, the increased diversity has mainly to do with groups (e.g. through migration) and less with individuals and their choices (Duyvendak, 2004). Increased religious diversity Increased diversity is also seen in the field of religion and worldview (Weisse, 2009), and has developed following similar patterns to those described above. Boeve (2005) depicts the development of religion in Europe by pointing to ‘detraditionalisation’ and ‘pluralisation’. Detraditionalisation is about the decline of the authority of religious institutions and traditions, and at the same time the increase of individualisation or subjectification through which individuals construct their own religiosity (Boeve, 2005; cf. Miedema, 2017; Tromp et al., 2020). Comparably to biography of choice, religious identity is often a matter of bricolage: an eclectic mix of faith elements that can also come from outside one’s own religious tradition (Bernts, 2007; Elshof, 2008; De Hart, 2007; Miedema, 2003). This leads to a change in religiosity, but not necessarily to a decrease in it (Bernts & Berghuijs, 2016; Davie, 2000; De Hart & Van Houwelingen, 2018; Taylor, 2002, 2007; Tromp et al., 2020). In the Netherlands, traditional Christian convictions and practices are becoming less and less widespread; religion and religious institutions have less influence on everyday life; and religious organisations are adjusting their messages to connect with secular ways of life (De Hart & Van Houwelingen, 2018). Pluralisation, according to Boeve (2005, p. 106), means that “…geographic as well asmental mobility have brought the plural world of religions onto our doorstep”. It is emphasised that traditional believers also have to relate detraditionalization and pluralisation because culturally it is no longer necessary to be a Christian and the Christian faith is no longer taken for granted in society (Boeve, 2005). Based on Beckford (1999), MartínezAriño and Teinturier (2019) indicate what the context of religious diversity means for religious communities: 1) an increase in the variety of religious groups in a particular context; (2) a growing presence of non-Christian religious groups; (3) the spread and popularity of the