Chapter 1 8 Contemporary organizations often include a Human Resource Management (HRM) department, which function it is to design and champion the policies and practices with which employees are managed and organized. Research has shown that organizations that are effective and/or efficient in their HRM processes (e.g., selection, training) can gain a competitive advantage (e.g., Wright, McMahan, & McWilliams, 1994). However, how do you find out which HRM policies and practices are effective and efficient in a specific organizational context? In practice, scientific findings are increasingly consulted as a basis of evidence for effective HRM implementation. However, such external evidence provides no guarantee of impact in the own, internal context. Hence, there is a strong need for organization-specific HR metrics and analytics to uncover which HRM practices and policies work and work best. Technological developments over the past years allow contemporary organizations to collect and analyze increasing amounts of data. Are these data already leveraged analytically within the HRM domain? How and where can HRM departments start with data analytics? And what kind of actionable insights can be retrieved from HRM data? These are some of the questions this dissertation explores. This introduction will first discuss a short history of strategic HRM research alongside the increasing demand for evidence-based HRM. Next, it explores the rise of people analytics: what does it entail and how does it contribute to the basis of evidence for HRM. This introduction concludes with an outline of the research questions and the chapters of this dissertation. Moreover, the case of expatriate management is presented, which we will approach from a people analytics perspective.