Desley van Zoggel

Chapter 4 68 References 1. Heald RJ, Moran BJ, Ryall RDH, et al. Rectal cancer: the Basingstoke experience of total mesorectal excision, 1978-1997. Arch Surg. 1998;133:894–899. 2. Habr-Gama A, Perez RO, Nadalin W, et al. Operative versus nonoperative treatment for stage 0 distal rectal cancer following chemoradiation therapy: long-term results. Ann Surg. 2004;240:711– 718. 3. GurenMG, Kørner H, Pfeffer F, et al. Nationwide improvement of rectal cancer treatment outcomes in Norway, 1993-2010. Acta Oncol. 2015;54:1714–1722. 4. Kodeda K, Johansson R, Zar N, et al. Time trends, improvements and national auditing of rectal cancer management over an 18-year period. Colorectal Dis. 2015;17:O168–O179. 5. Hojo K, Koyama Y, Moriya Y. Lymphatic spread and its prognostic value in patients with rectal cancer. Am J Surg. 1982;144:350–354. 6. Moriya Y, Sugihara K, Akasu T, et al. Importance of extended lymphadenectomy with lateral node dissection for advanced lower rectal cancer. World J Surg. 1997;21:728–732. 7. SteupWH,MoriyaY, VandeVeldeCJH. Patternsof lymphaticspread inrectal cancer. Atopographical analysis on lymph node metastases. Eur J Cancer. 2002;38:911–918. 8. Ueno M, Oya M, Azekura K, et al. Incidence and prognostic significance of lateral lymph node metastasis in patients with advanced low rectal cancer. Br J Surg. 2005;92:756–763. 9. Kusters M, Beets GL, Van De Velde CJH, et al. A comparison between the treatment of low rectal cancer in japan and the netherlands, focusing on the patterns of local recurrence. Ann Surg. 2009;249:229–235. 10. Kusters M, Marijnen CAM, van de Velde CJH, et al. Patterns of local recurrence in rectal cancer; a study of the Dutch TME trial. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2010;36:470–476. 11. Kusters M, Dresen RC, Martijn H, et al. Radicality of resection and survival after multimodality treatment is influenced by subsite of locally recurrent rectal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;75:1444–1449. 12. Dresen RC, Kusters M, Daniels-Gooszen AW, et al. Absence of tumor invasion into pelvic structures in locally recurrent rectal cancer: prediction with preoperative MR imaging. Radiology. 2010;256:143–150. 13. Dewdney A, Cunningham D, Tabernero J, et al. Multicenter randomized phase II clinical trial comparing neoadjuvant oxaliplatin, capecitabine, and preoperative radiotherapy with or without cetuximab followed by total mesorectal excision in patients with high-risk rectal cancer (EXPERT-C). J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:1620–1627. 14. Fernández-Martos C, Garcia-Albeniz X, Pericay C, et al. Chemoradiation, surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy versus induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation and surgery: longterm results of the Spanish GCR-3 phase II randomized trial†. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol. 2015;26:1722–1728. 15. Cercek A, GoodmanKA, Hajj C, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy first, followed by chemoradiation and then surgery, in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2014;12:513–519. 16. Watanabe T, Tsurita G, Muto T, et al. Extended lymphadenectomy and preoperative radiotherapy for lower rectal cancers. Surgery. 2002;132:27–33.