Chapter 2 30 References 1. van Gijn W, Marijnen CA, Nagtegaal ID, et al. Preoperative radiotherapy combined with total mesorectal excision for resectable rectal cancer: 12-year follow-up of themulticentre, randomised controlles TME trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12:575–582. 2. Sasikumar A, Bhan C, Jenkins JT, et al. Systematic Review of Pelvic Exenteration With En Bloc Sacrectomy for Recurrent Rectal Adenocarcinoma: R0 Resection Predicts Disease-free Survival. Dis Colon Rectum. 2017;60:346–352. 3. Harris CA, Solomon MJ, Heriot AG, et al. The Outcomes and Patterns of Treatment Failure After Surgery for Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer. Ann Surg. 2016;264:323–329. 4. Alberda WJ, Verhoef C, Schipper MEI, et al. The Importance of a Minimal Tumor-Free Resection Margin in Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 2015;58:677–685. 5. Bhangu A, Beynon J, Brown G, et al. Consensus statement on the multidisciplinary management of patients with recurrent and primary rectal cancer beyond total mesorectal excision planes. Br J Surg.;100 . Epub ahead of print 2013. DOI: 10.1002/BJS.9192_1. 6. Bosman SJ, Holman FA, Nieuwenhuijzen GAP, et al. Feasibility of reirradiation in the treatment of locally recurrent rectal cancer. Br J Surg. 2014;101:1280–1289. 7. MohiuddinM, MarksG, Marks J. Long-termresults of reirradiation for patientswith recurrent rectal carcinoma. Cancer. 2002;95:1144–1150. 8. Glimelius B. Recurrent rectal cancer. The pre-irradiated primary tumour: can more radiotherapy be given? Colorectal Dis. 2003;5:501–503. 9. Van Der Meij W, Rombouts AJM, Rutten H, et al. Treatment of Locally Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma in Previously (Chemo)Irradiated Patients: A Review. Dis Colon Rectum. 2016;59:148–156. 10. Dresen RC, Gosens MJ, Martijn H, et al. Radical Resection After IORT-Containing Multimodality Treatment is the Most Important Determinant for Outcome in Patients Treated for Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. . Epub ahead of print 2008. DOI: 10.1245/s10434-0089896-z. 11. Holman FA, Bosman SJ, Haddock MG, et al. Results of a pooled analysis of IOERT containing multimodality treatment for locally recurrent rectal cancer: Results of 565 patients of two major treatment centres. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017;43:107–117. 12. van den Brink M, Stiggelbout AM, van den Hout WB, et al. Clinical nature and prognosis of locally recurrent rectal cancer after total mesorectal excision with or without preoperative radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:3958–3964. 13. Tanis PJ, Doeksen A, Van Lanschot JJB. Intentionally curative treatment of locally recurrent rectal cancer: a systematic review. Can J Surg. 2013;56:135. 14. BakarA, BhattiH,WaheedA, et al. Can InductionChemotherapybeforeConcurrent Chemoradiation Impact Circumferential Resection Margin Positivity and Survival in Low Rectal Cancers ? 2015;16:2993–2998. 15. Fernandez-Martos C, Garcia Fadrique A, Glynne-Jones R. Optimal sequencing of neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) in rectal cancer: upfront chemotherapy vs. upfront chemoradiation. Curr Color Cancer Rep. 2017;13:154–165. 16. Dresen RC, Kusters M, Daniels-Gooszen AW, et al. Absence of tumor invasion into pelvic structures in locally recurrent rectal cancer: prediction with preoperative MR imaging. Radiology. 2010;256:143–150.